Home Non-Fiction


A series of essays and articles from my days in academia. Many of these essays were written in response to a question and some of them no longer represent my current views.

Perceptions of Verdun

The Battle of Verdun was the single longest battle of the Western Front of the First World War (WW1), lasting from February 21st to...

Sen’s Approach to the Bengali Famine of 1943

Often, the phenomenon of famine is treated as a problem of food production. The Bengali famine of the 1940s saw three million dead, as...

Perspectives of underdevelopment in Africa

Africa’s relative lack of development has been cause for much debate over the historical factors that have led to their economic status. This essay...

Drama and Reality in The Crown

My family and I are very much enjoying The Crown, a historical drama on Netflix, detailing the reign of Elizabeth II, the interactions of...

Do states have permanent interests?

Everything is in flux. As Gartzke and Weisiger (2013) argue, change is constant, but it isn’t a constant (Gartzke & Weisiger, 2013: 2). The...

The Role of MITI in Post-WW2 Japan

The Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) had an integral role in Post-WW2 Japanese economic development. While it is inaccurate to have called...

The Asian and Western Paths of Development

Kaoru Sugihara (2013) argues that industrialisation can be viewed as two distinctive paths – the Western Path and the Asian Path. The Western Path...
Power Lines Eskom

Energy and the Apartheid State

Modern industry and commerce rely on energy to function. In South Africa, this energy sector was dominated, throughout the period of 1948 to 1994,...

Rudyard Kipling and Orientalism

Kipling (1865-1936) is often seen as an Orientalist writer, a branch of arts and literature condemned for its imitation of Eastern life in order...

Brief Explanation of Weber’s Authority and Legitimacy

Renowned sociologist Max Weber established an important distinction between authority and legitimacy in politics. Weber (1922) highlighted legitimacy as a relationship between the rulers and...