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A series of essays and articles from my days in academia. Many of these essays were written in response to a question and some of them no longer represent my current views.

Power Lines Eskom

Parastatals and Energy in South Africa

Politics and the social fabric of society are very much interlinked with economics. In the words of Lenin, states and other key economic players...

ANC Anti-Poverty Initiatives

The African National Congress’s (ANC) rise to power in 1994 saw a monumental increase in efforts to combat poverty and inequality. Their election campaign...

Apartheid and Rural Poverty

Apartheid’s planning and social engineering stratified the majority of the South African population, disallowing them opportunities and the means to uplift themselves from the...

Gender Relations in South Eastern Nigeria production

Economies and agrarian systems evolve due to a myriad of factors. Gender relations are often a product of economic systems and a contributing factor...

Perspectives of underdevelopment in Africa

Africa’s relative lack of development has been cause for much debate over the historical factors that have led to their economic status. This essay...

Institutions and Famine in Communist China and Postcolonial India

Historically, famine was thought to be a disaster of nature, damaging human creation. All we could do was weather the storm. Famine was seen...

Fragmented Nationalism in Shanghai

From the period of 1842 to 1943, Shanghai possessed a worrying lack of sovereignty due to the fragmentation of its political power. Bickers (2012)...

Sen’s Approach to the Bengali Famine of 1943

This article came to my attention years later (2022) and successfully debunks Sen's methodology by refuting his statistics. Sen uses forecasts, not actual production...

Was the failure of Kenya Institutional or Neopatrimonial?

In 1964, Kenya gained its independence under the Kenyan African National Union (KANU), led by Jomo Kenyatta. Since then, the country has faced similar...

How to analyse the Chinese Famine

The Chinese Famine, despite much research and study, still confuses many. For two decades, the Chinese state covered it up. Even now, researchers must...